Diskutere og greie ut om årsakene til første verdenskrig. Skille mellom utløsende og bakenforliggende faktorer.

- Nationalism
Nationalism means being a strong supporter of the rights and interests of one’s country. The Congress of Vienna, held after Napoleon’s exile to Elba, aimed to sort out problems in Europe. Delegates from Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia (the winning allies) decided upon a new Europe that left both Germany and Italy as divided states. Strong nationalist elements led to the re-unification of Italy in 1861 and Germany in 1871. The settlement at the end of the Franco-Prussian war left France angry at the loss of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany and keen to regain their lost territory. Large areas of both Austria-Hungary and Serbia were home to differing nationalist groups, all of whom wanted freedom from the states in which they lived.

- Military
Militarism means that the army and military forces are given a high profile by the government. The growing European divide had led to an arms race between the main countries. The armies of both France and Germany had more than doubled between 1870 and 1914 and there was fierce competition between Britain and Germany for mastery of the seas. The British had introduced the ‘Dreadnought’, an effective battleship, in 1906. The Germans soon followed suit introducing their own battleships. The German, Von Schlieffen also drew up a plan of action that involved attacking France through Belgium if Russia made an attack on Germany.

- Imperialism
Imperialism is when a country takes over new lands or countries and makes them subject to their rule. By 1900 the British Empire extended over five continents and France had control of large areas of Africa. With the rise of industrialism countries needed new markets. The amount of lands ‘owned’ by Britain and France increased the rivalry with Germany who had entered the scramble to acquire colonies late and only had small areas of Africa.

- Triggered by assassination of Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand and wife, by Bosnian G Princip.
- Alliances: Triple Entente (Britain, Russia, and France) and the Triple Alliance (Germany et Austria-Hungary et Italia - the backstabber)

Greie ut om innholdet i Versailles-trakten. Hva var bakgrunnen for innholdet og hvilke konsekvenser fikk den?

Peace treaty. Germany reduce armed forces from 6 mil to 100,000 with most tech and military artillery. 132 billion gold marks to be paid as debt (finished in 2010). This ‘oppression’ lead to Adolt Hilter’s rise. Created League of nations.

Alsace Lorraine to France. Germany give land to Poland. Italy gained a bit of Austria. Austria-Hungary split. France and Great Britain got the Ottoman Empire.

A big problem for Germany was to pay back a giant amount of money for the all of the damage done to the Allied countries, mostly France, during World War I. This made Germany one of the poorest countries in Europe for almost 20 years, and caused political fighting in Germany. Germany officially finished paying off its debt on Sunday, October 3, 2010. The two most important parties, the Communists (who wanted a Communist revolution as had happened in Russia) and the Nazis (who thought Germany should become the most powerful country in Europe) fought for many years.

The debt to the Allies was made easier for the Germans during the Great Depression, and all debt was cancelled in 1932. Many Germans hated the treaty and some even wanted to fight more after Versailles.

The League of Nations created after Versailles was usually not powerful enough to stop wars, either. Japan took a part of China called Manchuria and the League was not able to stop it. Italy invaded Ethiopia and although the Ethiopian Emperor begged the League to help him, it did not. Germany, Japan and Italy became the Axis powers, and by invading many peaceful countries caused World War II. The United States and the USSR did not even join the League, even though it was the idea of US President Woodrow Wilson in the first place. The League was never taken seriously, even though it was created to make sure Versailles was respected. The treaty failed to keep peace in the end, and was a reason for Nazi Germany and Adolf Hitler to win the support of the poorer Germans to get rid of the “chains of Versailles”, leading to World War II.

Forklare årsakene til den økonomiske situasjonen i Europa og i USA i mellomkrigstiden.

- Inflation in Germany, Austria, and Hungary

- Made a good deal of money selling arms and other items to Europe.
- Triving stock market (avbetaling)
- The Lost Generation + the Flappers + Hemingway
- Production made easier and cheaper
- New tech like gramophone and radio and car by Ford
Later, great depression:
- Hoover vs Roosevelt
- Closed the banks for a few days
- Beer was allowed
- Raised taxes for the rich
- Created new acts (15 new laws), and employed people for governmental tasks (building + dams for new acres and more electrical power)
- Later there was no trust in the worker unions + strikes/people moved to California
- Congress and Supreme Court opposed him
- New war brought unemployment to an end

Gjøre rede for innholdet i kommunismen og fascismen og greie ut om hvilken betydning disse to ideologiene fikk for den politiske og den økonomiske utviklingen i Europa i mellomkrigstiden.

First revolution after WW1 where the people weren’t happy with the Tzar and the loses they had. Imperialism sucks.
The Tzar abdicates.
Duma: State Assembly - elected legislative body.
Soviets: Soldiers and working class. Dominant of the two. Lenin led them to withdraw Russia from WW1, give people land, and give minor countries independence.

Second revolution: Coup de état by the bolsheviks. Ended peace with Germany.
Civil war broke out. Trotsky won. Soviet union created by the communists.
Tried to spread the message via Komintern which failed.
Secret police enforced. Communism was the only allowed party.
Power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky after Lenin’s death.

- Communism: A society without hierarchy or class system
- Facism: One leader, one party, and one opinion.
German: Nazi (Nasjonalsocialist) Vaktstyre (SS) + Gestapo as bodyguards
Italian: Fascists - Benito Mussolini
- Nationalism, anti democracy (believed would split the nation), Racism, Imperialism, Violence/Strength.

Fixed. theme by Andrew McCarthy